Julie Chen’s inaugural speech at Uni. Helsinki

I participated in Julie Yu-Wen Chen’s inaugural speech on 25th May. It was truly insightful and I am glad that I was there. Before going to the lecture hall, I have no idea what does Chinese studies mean, and I have no idea if there’s a difference between Chinese studies and China studies and Sinology.

Julie’s discipline is political science.  Therefore when she conduct Chinese research, she does not only look at China. Rather, she always look for scientific theories that can explain the Chinese societal phenomenon and to put it into the international comparison context. Her most famous research is about minorities in China. I find it really great because I can see how my research talk with her research.

Julie commenced her presentation by making a distinction between ‘Chinese studies decades ago’ and ‘contemporary Chinese studies’. She justified this distinction by making the argument that there’s no undisputed one and neutral Chinese research. She argues that having different discipline, cultural background and being educated from different time period and location will determine where you see what counts as central component of Chinese studies. Basically she wants to introduce the concept that the Chinese studies you know might not be the one and only way of doing Chinese research. She did it in two ways. First, she contrasted the differences of central components between ‘Chinese studies decades ago’ and ‘contemporary Chinese studies’. The former includes classical literature, linguistics and phonology; where the latter includes sociology, political science and economics. In the eyes of the older generation of Sinologists, commenting on the political issues of China can be superficial because that’s what politicians and journalists do, not scientists. Of course nowadays the situation has changed and social science as a whole become more relevant in Chinese studies. The second way she made the point of versatile Chinese research is provoke you by asking whether we are treating Chinese studies as

  1. with rich cultural heritage
  2. socialist country
  3. authoritarian and backwards

With different choices mean that you take different orientations in dealing with Chinese studies. This choice also influence your field research location between mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong/Macau or Singapore. In short, she wishes to stress that we need to be mindful about the perspectives of generational divide and disciplinary divide. With important agents such as Asian studies, Confucious institute, she hopes to create and construct a unique Finland’s Chinese studies with distinctive characteristics.

Julie_Chen_陳玉文

Julie Yu-Wen Chen, professor of Chinese Studies at the Department of World Cultures at the University of Helsinki. Source: her tuhat database profile

Her presentation made me reflect on my encounter with Chinese Studies at the University of Helsinki. Three years ago when I just started my studies in Helsinki, I was very interested in whether I can find a TA or RA or engage in any way with the Chinese studies (and/or Confucius institute). The plan did not go well because Confucius Institute told me they were only in charge of Chinese studies at the moment and they have enough people to teach. My personal experience showed me that the University of Helsinki was not ready to utilize the human resources of native Chinese speaker. I tried to participate in the ALICE (Academic Language and Intellectual Exchange) program and University of Helsinki’s Course Assistant Program as a native Chinese speaker. However neither of the plan worked out. I asked the coordinator why Mandarin Chinese is not included in the Course Assistant Program:

As a Mandarin Chinese speaker, I find myself a strong candidate to share my culture and assisting the class for Chinese language courses. I love to help people with their language learning and I am passionate towards language learning. If it’s not terribly inconvenient, would you recommend what needed to be done so the university would include Mandarin Chinese as one of the targeted language enlisted in the programme? 

The answer from the coordinator was that there were only two courses per academic year so the need was low. Therefore the need for assistant is low, too. Here is her answer:

We have indeed Chinese courses in our language offerings, but only two courses per academic year. The first, beginner’s level course is in the autumn semester and the second one continues from that in the spring semester. Since there are only these two courses there hasn’t been a huge need for assistants so far, but now we are piloting this in our Chinese teaching as well.

I hope this will change in the future with Julie’s inauguration! For more information, see the blog of Chinese Studies at the University of Helsinki and Julie Yu-Wen’s website.

民主理論與性別化的實踐

「民主理論與性別化的實踐」是一門今年(2016)我的指導教授在五月底預計開設的兩日密集課程,修完之後,我離畢業又更進一步!所以我已經報名參加,而且會在裡面把論文的一部份與訪問學者討論。

修這種課程,對我而言,最花心思的就是要一直思考到底這樣的概念在台灣是如何實踐的。這樣的概念在多大的程度上可以穿越界線?它的解釋力是不是還在?

第一位訪問教授是Yvonne Galligan主要的研究聚焦在愛爾蘭、北愛爾蘭以及英國,議題是性別與民主之間的關係,主要是兩個方面的研究:第一、發展十五個政治決策場域內性別化的指標,目前最主要測試的地點是英國;第二、政治代表性,女性在政治場域中代表性偏低的原因與後果。第二位訪問教授是丹麥來的 Birte Siim,她在人權、照顧政治、民主與多元、公民權、性別與權力、多元文化主義與交織性(intersectionality)都有深厚的底蘊。第三位是芬蘭教授 Johanna Kantola,她主要研究的場域是性別、權力、政黨、交織性、性別平等政策、國家女性主義、女性主義理論與代表性。

指導教授說討論的形式是寫一篇25頁以內的小論文,在開始之前可以給大家看、討論。由於現在只剩下一週的時間,我打算就我之前ECPR(歐洲政治研究學會)的 joint session 討論的那篇做修改。其中,尤其以多元文化主義和原住民族探討為經,奠基在個人的社會權以及奠基在集體的文化權為緯,來做討論。

–以下是詳細課程資訊–

DEMOCRATIC THEORY AND GENDERED PRACTICES

Joint Doctoral Course of PRSC and SKY Doctoral Programmes

(Political, Societal and Regional Change PRSC; Gender, Culture and Society SKY)

University of Helsinki, 30-31st May, 2016

Keynote speakers:

Professor Yvonne Galligan (Queen’s University, Belfast): Interrogating the quality of democracy: Feminist insights

Professor Birte Siim (University of Aalborg): Reframing democracy ‒ intersectional and transnational challenges

Academy Researcher Johanna Kantola (University of Helsinki): Party politics – a challenge or a possibility to gender equality?

Professor Anne Maria Holli (University of Helsinki): Who represents women? Theoretical and empirical insights from a study on the corporatist structures in Finnish public policy-making

We invite doctoral students in the field of gender research and/or dealing with various theoretical and/or empirical aspects of democracy to propose abstracts for papers to be commented by our guest speakers and principal investigators within HU in the seminar sessions which will be arranged adjacent to the keynote speeches on Monday and Tuesday 30-31st May.

A detailed programme of the doctoral will be available soon, but at this stage we would like interested doctoral students to pre-register their intention to present a paper.as soon as possible to ensure that we will schedule enough time for the paper sessions.

Deadline for abstract proposals: 15.4.2016. Please submit your abstract in Weboodi: 79340 P630. Politiikan tutkimuksen muut jatko-opinnot (112947121)/P630 Other Postgraduate Studies in Politics: Democratic Theory and Gendered Practices.

General participant pre-registration: preferred deadline is also 15.4.2016 but registration will continue till 30.5:  Please, those doctoral students who wish to participate in this course and acquire credits from it  but are not giving a paper of their own,  kindly also pre-register for the course  in advance  in Weboodi (for organizational purposes):  79340 P630. Politiikan tutkimuksen muut jatko-opinnot (112947121)/P630 Other Postgraduate Studies in Politics: Democratic Theory and Gendered Practices.

Credits:

1 ECTS: Active participation, including participation in the paper sessions

2 ECTS: Active participation (see above) and presentation of own paper

4-6 ECTS: See above plus essay and/or literature examination (in aquarium) – more detailed information available later on/on request (target: in particular political science doctoral students, for whom this doctoral course compensates for credits in P615 Political theory)

默示教學說明會跟一些想法

剛好在網路上看到雅萍老師宣傳,於是就去了。結果幸好有去,不僅是碰到元宵節,老師八個、聽講的卻只有四個,很可惜,更是因為示範教學內容很有意思,真的值得一聽。

以下是雅萍老師的宣傳文:

●【政大默示族語教學說明會】 (2/22(一)晚上)
~~大專學生搶救族語自主學習團隊合作一起努力~~
~~我們不只要學族語,還要變成會傳承文化教族語的人~~
原來搭蘆灣社的布農語班和泰雅語班的聯合開課精進學習會~~
(當天會討論確定本學期布農語班和泰雅語班第三期的上課時間)
◎默示教學法的精進體驗。
(1)7:00–7:30 相見歡,分享和複習上學期和寒假的學習心得
(2)7:30-8:30 教學演示及說明~以太魯閣語為例
(3)8:30-9:00 綜合討論
教學演示內容:音→句的教學
演示者:王美芳,彭美珠老師
指導老師:陳惠珠老師
地點:政大綜合院館南棟109教室。
自由入場,歡迎旁聽。

首先是陳老師講解什麼是默示教學 “the silent way method”

  • Founder: Dr. Gattegno
  • 好的原因是因為以學生為中心,而不是老師為中心
  • 怎麼教?用積木教句構,讓學生反覆練習 i.e. “silent way” = teachers remain silent, let students speak.
  • 在台灣族語教學做了4年
  • 心法:老師要盡量保持靜默,最重要的,不做任何口頭解釋(有意思,我本來以為就是單一語言來解釋也可以)。她強調是要讓學生來察覺跟發現
  • 八字箴言:「新舊交替、循序漸進」。每堂課一定要有新的東西,也要有舊的東西。
  • 你可以邊學語言,一邊教語言。
  • 他自己是用這套教學法教英文。
  • 陳老師講了讓我忘不太掉的幾句話
    • 「Gattegno是猶太人,從小就是發展想像力、觀察力、主動、直覺,這是我們華人最缺乏的,我們華人最重視記憶跟背誦。」
    • 「我們華人窮極一生都在做這件事情,記憶跟背誦」
    • 「我有了新發現,就是猶太人怎麼教育孩子很棒,你跟著走就對了」
  • 絕對不提示學生,不僅是因為學生自己想印象比較深刻,更是讓學生自己學,給機會開發他自己的能力、讓能力自己長出來、破繭而出。
  • 目前默示教學在台灣發展了4年

太魯閣族語的教學演練很精彩,短短20分鐘內我學會了太魯閣族語的簡要發音跟一種句構。如果有小型的workshop以這樣適當的速度針對像我這種「對族語沒什麼基礎、但是已經有學習其他語言的基礎」的人,應該會有很大幫助。雖然在政大上的泰雅默示族語課很活潑有趣,但是由於課上的同學都已經有相當的泰雅語程度,所以對我來講比較難以進入,學習上進步也比較有限。

 

默示教學的實務分享

  

雅萍主任開學第一天活潑開場

  

太魯閣族語試教句子

  

這輩子第一堂太魯閣族語課

 原住民族的語言跟認同是綁在一起的,默示族語教學法或許提供了一個絕佳的機會來復振原住民族語言。真的很希望可以學會一些基本的泰雅語、不只是為了學而學,更是希望可以一窺泰雅的世界觀、認識論、認同跟生活生命的方法與態度。簡單的說,就是進入泰雅的世界、把泰雅語建構的世界納入我的多軌認識世界庫裡面、讓泰雅的認同真正自然而然的長出來、讓泰雅的文化活起來。

文化最核心包括了人們如何去知道、相信、感覺或思考(核心層),其次才是人們的一些行為,像是笑點在哪、煮什麼東西(中間層),最後才是一些物質的東西,像是煮出來的東西、衣服、房子等等(表面層)。就泰雅族而言,表面層應該就是小米、蕃薯、醃山豬肉、紅色服飾、織布、竹編、口簧琴,而中間層可能是拔齒穿耳、祖靈祭、狩獵、山田燒墾,而核心層可能是要勇敢強悍地在險惡的地理環境裡面保護部落、為整個部落福祉著想與負責、強烈追求自我的尊嚴、相互尊重、必須幫助弱勢以及匱乏的人等等。很多人想到文化,只想到最外面的那層,這樣其實讓很多人對文化很多誤解,比如說人家覺得原住民文化式微,因為原住民不像100年前一樣、不住傳統房子、不穿傳統衣服了。但是其實要看到一個族群真正的文化,必須要看穿這個表面層,而看到下面那兩層才行,因為下面那兩層才是要緊的。如果沒有核心層,表面層是沒辦法維持的。

學語言,尤其是原住民族語言,是跟文化綁在一起的。語言不僅是文化的載具,更形塑文化、而且被文化形塑。不論是單字、句法結構、文化規則,都再再是反映了環境、活著的方式、思考的方法。比如說北美的Inuktitut族語裡面,所有在地的動物都有他自己的名字。比如說「海豹」不只是「海豹」而已,而是各式各樣的海豹都有自己的名字。另一個例子,比如說Cree族語把所有的東西都分成「活的」跟「不是活的」而這個區別會影響到動詞的變化。在中文裡面比如說我們說石頭的時候,會用「它」,但是在Cree族語裡面,你卻是把他分成活著的’asini’ (石頭)。Cree族語的這個文法反應了很多習以為常的非人類的東西,其實有著他們自己的生命。所以語言是跟文化–尤其是文化的核心層–緊緊相連的。

最新出來的一篇原住民族族語健檢說泰雅語是最健康的,20歲以下有超過70%的人泰雅族年輕人使用泰雅語(聯合新聞網 2016/2/20)。我蠻好奇他原住民族語言調查研究三年實施計畫裡面,到底有使用是使用多少?在家裡使用嗎?還是部落?還是學校?學校裡面族語課程規劃權力是在漢語主管手上、還是族語主管手上?在工作的場合可以使用族語嗎?政府在部落有提供族語的服務嗎?真正的健檢,是要檢查這些吧。

西格陵蘭語是格陵蘭Inuit族的官方語言,它也是Inuit族語群裡頭,唯一沒有瀕臨滅絕的一支。他之所以可以這樣一支獨秀,除了族人的努力,政府的支持也有很大的關係。1972年格陵蘭的搖滾樂團 Sumé (意思是「哪裡、何處」)就開始了點燃族人要回語言、認同、文化權利的火光,他們的Nunaqarfiit歌曲裡面,歌詞明白寫著「該是時候活得像個Inuit人,而不是西方人」。他們的故事甚至在2014年被拍成的紀錄片「Sumé:革命之聲」(Sumé : the sound of a revolution , 這邊有國際預告片)。很有趣的是挪威薩米族的傳統jojk歌謠,在他們革命時刻–反對政府在Alta小鎮蓋大型水庫–也扮演重要的角色。

衷心祝福台灣原住民族的點燃族人眼睛裡面閃閃火光的革命時刻早日到來。

下學期參考要修的選修課

這些都不是系上的必修學分,所以不知道修了這些是不是可以朝畢業更進一步 Orz 還是要跟老師問問看抵免的事情。

406778, Insights into the Past and Present of Indigenous Societies in the Americas, 5 cr (02.11.2015 -03.12.2015)

Dutch for beginners (31.08.2015 -14.12.2015)

Japanese for beginner

760050 introduction to the nordic welfare state (Sami Outinen)

753465 ageing research goes future studies (Kathrin Komp)

高富貫區長3月25日政大分享 演講短記

3月25日烏來區區長來政大演講的宣傳海報

3月25日烏來區區長來政大演講的宣傳海報

這週政大通識演講邀請高富貫區長,在下午陰雨綿綿的天氣,以主「都市計畫與我──頭目到區長的生命經驗與觀點」為題,跟同學分享他的經驗。整場演講聽了區長分享區長的、區公所的、長官的看法,卻少了頭目的、自己的、原住民的看法。

區長穿著一襲正式的西裝,先是跟同學分享了共同同是政大人的過去,接著講他所參與的烏來的用地在都市規劃通盤檢討抗爭歷程(通盤檢討計畫書,因為找不到103年的,所以參考100年的,見)。後來簡單迅速的Q&A,因為區長5點半有事,所以今天課程也提早半小時結束。

他先是簡單講用地圖清楚地指出烏來位於兩個水源特定區(烏來&台北),總共是321.13平方公里,佔新北市面積15.6%,老街原住民少,而且幾乎是國有財產局的地,原住民部落在山地部落(大家熟知的「烏來部落」)那邊開始往上比較多。

他的核心訴求是政府應該要讓烏來住宅區的面積增加。但是他從前年4月18日座談會個人陳情開始,經過到10月開部落會議,到去年2月18日孔文吉邀請是政府來聽,都沒有結果。我估狗搜尋一下發現其實在94年孔文吉就發表了十項決議,內容跟高區長提到的訴求很類似,就是要政府放寬法令,專案允許烏來居民修建住宅以及發展農業觀光事業(第一條)。

高區長表示中央沒有聲音回來,所以才組自救會。他說組了自救會之後,他積極組織3月29抗議(新聞見)(城鄉局在知道時候,馬上就緊急在3月25日辦座談會。不過這種座談會的資料真的是沒有參加就不知道在哪裡,怎麼估狗我都估不到Orz)

在抗議裡面,區長強調他們希望政府把烏來眾部落道路旁邊地區改成第二種住宅區(比如說環山道路上方、機關用地、溫泉館上方、成功區等等)。他們的依據是原住民族基本法21條(主要意思就是在原住民族土地裡面開發,需要徵求原住民族事先的同意,並且與原住民分享利益,政府限制原住民族利用土地也必須跟原住民族協商,關於原住民族基本法全文見)。區長說烏來全區有三萬多公頃,原住民族保留地2044公頃,他的組織訴求就更改地目6.1公頃,他不了解為什麼那麼難。

後來城鄉局在選舉之後終於有了反應,更新了原住民族保留地上面蓋自己住的房子的規定(比如說基地條件要坡度30%以下,臨計畫道路啦,房屋規模不能超過兩層樓、樓地板面積/容積不能超過多少多少),他覺得不滿,因為(1) 他覺得這比起烏來之前在保安保護區的蓋房子規定,規定的更嚴格,這樣更不可能蓋房子 (2) 這個草案沒有提到怎麼處理房子在合法化之前早就已經蓋了的房子該怎麼辦 (我也是第一次知道原來烏來現在全部的民宿,在我們偉大中華民國的法律下,都是非法民宿)。

在Q&A的時候,區長用重讀部落會議的要點來說明目前部落會議是按規定進行;提到目前存在的所有(51家)烏來民宿非法問題,區長說照規定辦;我問道部落會議開會記錄是不是可以放在公所的網站上,回應是我們會照規定來;提到北福要在烏來蓋大酒店(報導見),區長表示北福已經照「興辦事業計畫」通過–意思就是在公所的佈告欄公告三十天內沒人表示反對,就自動通過–所以區公所也沒有辦法管(區長表示是交通局觀光局在管、或是新北市城鄉局在管,不是區公所可以管的),畢竟這是依法處理。

在這個過程中,區公所給我的印象是…很多事情區公所似乎把依法辦事視為最高指導原則,是區公所辦事的目標。雖然我不太了解興辦事業計畫這法律,但是我認為「依法辦事」乃是區公所辦事的最低標準,而不是最高目標。區公所應該要看到法背後的精神與維護的價值,而不是形式上去追隨而已。

在公所所了解的烏來民眾需求,好像除了「他們很在意回饋金拿不拿得到」,就沒有其他的需求與看見。但是這跟我了解的居民需求差很多,因為我認識到的民眾需求,也包含了蓋酒店怎麼可以不問原住民、蓋了地質怎麼辦會不會有危險、蓋了會不會對水質造成危險、原住民的主體性在哪裡等等。

怎麼坐車到政大

還記得在讀大學一年級的時代,我跟班上同學一起到政大國關中心去上課。那時候坐公車沒有什麼難度,就從台大校門口出去,跳上去政大的公車,只記得睡了一覺就到了。但是現在因為跟政大合作做研究的關係,必須在早上十二點前到達政大。

實在是個考驗啊!政大自己的網站說自己交通便利,實在是…很相對的概念。

本來想說照原來大學的路線,從公館搭車上政大。但是後來因為送得木到建國南路那邊上班,因為他想要買Cama咖啡(得木譽Cama為文明社會之指標,越多Cama的地方,就越文明XD)給我喝,所以我們在大安站下,沒想到因禍得福!因為大安站就在棕線上,我一路從大安站搭到動物園站,不著痕跡地尾隨神情疲憊的政大學生們,搭了282公車,不到十分鐘就迅速地抵達了!

我以前總是自己騎機車去政大,因為不論從位於烏來或安康的家裡或是從台大,去政大總是很不方便,但是今天發現下雨天的備案,也可以搭捷運轉公車一路舒舒服服過去,沒什麼淋雨,真棒。

‘circumscribe’

I have been living in a non-Mandarin Chinese environment for about four years. Sadly, this does not automatically mean that my English becomes wonderful.

Today I will introduce this new word – circumscribe. I read it from my winter methodology school description that reassures the participants that both quantitative and qualitative orientations are suitable to come to the course. It says, “…especially if their [participants with statistical approaches] populations and/or samples are not so obvious to circumscribe.”

According to Merrian-Webster dictionary, circumscribe is described as follows:

1
a :  to constrict the range or activity of definitely and clearly<his role was carefully circumscribed>

b :  to define or mark off carefully <a study of plant species in a circumscribed area>

2
a :  to draw a line around

b :  to surround by or as if by a boundary <fieldscircumscribed by tall trees>

Circumscribe seems to be one of those posh words that has been widely used in academic articles. For example, when Lijphart explains the definition of his comparative methods, he says that “the approach of his earlier articles was to circumscribe in a number of ways.” (Lijphart 1971: 682)

It was not until I visited Carla in LA that I realized that my English was really rusty.

It was not until I visited Carla in LA that I realized that my English was really rusty. (Yosemite, 2014)