來自義大利的羅沙哥

羅沙是個中年的義大利人,約180公分的身高跟有點風霜但不減倜儻的笑容。因為看起來約40出頭,就叫他羅沙哥吧。

最具特色的是他有媲美獅子王裡面刀疤的翹鬍子,他也有健康黝黑的地中海膚色。他在芬蘭首都赫爾辛基的高級中學附屬國小教書,學生從7歲到18歲都有。今天有機會認識他、也順便跟他閒聊一下,講到我們各自學習芬蘭文,以及與人互動的經歷。

學習芬蘭文是每個外國人心中永遠糾結的一塊,這個是赫爾辛基大學旁邊Qulma湯廚房老闆認為最有用的芬蘭文,他在最近出了的書中講他自己在芬蘭的驚艷

我在芬蘭文上下過五年功夫在課外時間學習,在前年也拿到中級語言證書,算是粗淺知道這個語言的特色跟學習的困難。羅沙哥更強,在義大利時就主修芬蘭文四年,之後很自然就到芬蘭工作。他說要把這個語言練到可以講、與人對話,可能一年時間。之後就可以用與人互動的方式,邊說邊練、邊犯錯邊學。

羅沙哥有南歐人很常見那種直抒胸臆的個性,想到什麼講什麼,毫不猶豫或造作。他直言,芬蘭這個民族是他見過唯一自信心低到無法用自己語言回話的—無論你芬蘭文多好,只要芬蘭人看到你不是白人,他們就自動轉成英文跟你對話。他對芬蘭人看膚色講話這件事情很不以為然,他認為芬蘭人就是看到他的膚色,就幫他決定了他沒有使用芬蘭語的能力。

fnm-finnish-language

「芬蘭人的夢靨」是芬蘭的平面設計師Karoliina Korhonen做的創作。主要描繪芬式禮節跟習俗、甚至是一些芬蘭的刻板印象。(Source: 5th Wave Brands)

我覺得他跟我大相徑庭的解讀芬蘭人看人轉語言這件事很妙。因為從我的觀點,我頂多看成芬蘭人要效率,你反應太慢,有能力的芬蘭人就用措手不及的速度直接轉英文。有時候真的很緊張,怕他們會突然轉,這樣我就沒辦法練習。

羅沙哥聽我這麼說,用堅定的眼神看著說:「他們沒有自信用自己的語言,是他們的問題,完全不是妳的問題!」他說他就是這樣,當芬蘭人轉的時候,他就繼續講芬蘭文,直到芬蘭人自己覺得怪怪不好意思,就願意轉英文。

羅沙哥的觀點是,在什麼國家,就用這個語言跟人交流對話,這是天經地義。就像是你不跟魚跑步,你跟魚游泳;你不跟鳥游泳,你跟鳥飛翔。一樣的道理。

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Julie Chen’s inaugural speech at Uni. Helsinki

I participated in Julie Yu-Wen Chen’s inaugural speech on 25th May. It was truly insightful and I am glad that I was there. Before going to the lecture hall, I have no idea what does Chinese studies mean, and I have no idea if there’s a difference between Chinese studies and China studies and Sinology.

Julie’s discipline is political science.  Therefore when she conduct Chinese research, she does not only look at China. Rather, she always look for scientific theories that can explain the Chinese societal phenomenon and to put it into the international comparison context. Her most famous research is about minorities in China. I find it really great because I can see how my research talk with her research.

Julie commenced her presentation by making a distinction between ‘Chinese studies decades ago’ and ‘contemporary Chinese studies’. She justified this distinction by making the argument that there’s no undisputed one and neutral Chinese research. She argues that having different discipline, cultural background and being educated from different time period and location will determine where you see what counts as central component of Chinese studies. Basically she wants to introduce the concept that the Chinese studies you know might not be the one and only way of doing Chinese research. She did it in two ways. First, she contrasted the differences of central components between ‘Chinese studies decades ago’ and ‘contemporary Chinese studies’. The former includes classical literature, linguistics and phonology; where the latter includes sociology, political science and economics. In the eyes of the older generation of Sinologists, commenting on the political issues of China can be superficial because that’s what politicians and journalists do, not scientists. Of course nowadays the situation has changed and social science as a whole become more relevant in Chinese studies. The second way she made the point of versatile Chinese research is provoke you by asking whether we are treating Chinese studies as

  1. with rich cultural heritage
  2. socialist country
  3. authoritarian and backwards

With different choices mean that you take different orientations in dealing with Chinese studies. This choice also influence your field research location between mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong/Macau or Singapore. In short, she wishes to stress that we need to be mindful about the perspectives of generational divide and disciplinary divide. With important agents such as Asian studies, Confucious institute, she hopes to create and construct a unique Finland’s Chinese studies with distinctive characteristics.

Julie_Chen_陳玉文

Julie Yu-Wen Chen, professor of Chinese Studies at the Department of World Cultures at the University of Helsinki. Source: her tuhat database profile

Her presentation made me reflect on my encounter with Chinese Studies at the University of Helsinki. Three years ago when I just started my studies in Helsinki, I was very interested in whether I can find a TA or RA or engage in any way with the Chinese studies (and/or Confucius institute). The plan did not go well because Confucius Institute told me they were only in charge of Chinese studies at the moment and they have enough people to teach. My personal experience showed me that the University of Helsinki was not ready to utilize the human resources of native Chinese speaker. I tried to participate in the ALICE (Academic Language and Intellectual Exchange) program and University of Helsinki’s Course Assistant Program as a native Chinese speaker. However neither of the plan worked out. I asked the coordinator why Mandarin Chinese is not included in the Course Assistant Program:

As a Mandarin Chinese speaker, I find myself a strong candidate to share my culture and assisting the class for Chinese language courses. I love to help people with their language learning and I am passionate towards language learning. If it’s not terribly inconvenient, would you recommend what needed to be done so the university would include Mandarin Chinese as one of the targeted language enlisted in the programme? 

The answer from the coordinator was that there were only two courses per academic year so the need was low. Therefore the need for assistant is low, too. Here is her answer:

We have indeed Chinese courses in our language offerings, but only two courses per academic year. The first, beginner’s level course is in the autumn semester and the second one continues from that in the spring semester. Since there are only these two courses there hasn’t been a huge need for assistants so far, but now we are piloting this in our Chinese teaching as well.

I hope this will change in the future with Julie’s inauguration! For more information, see the blog of Chinese Studies at the University of Helsinki and Julie Yu-Wen’s website.

Finland, a country of layers

Finland is a country with layers at many levels. 

When you meet a Finn, you have to go through the “layers” to really become on speaking terms. It will take another few layers for you to go out with him or her for coffee, and another few layers to really become a friend.

When you go to a house in Finland, chances are you will find yourself being inside a 18 degree C environment though it might be -10 degrees. Why? Because houses in Finland are built in “layers”.  It is hard to see from outside but you will the difference when winter comes.

the layers are necessary in finnish houses

  

the layers are necessary for insallation

 
You can easily find “layers” also when you go home– when you go to sleep! I got so used to the layered bed that I found sleeping on a bed without at least double mattress almost unbearable. 

I will keep you posted on other layers I emcounter…

  

回到芬蘭

到昨天為止,我總共在台灣花了四個月。

雖然每天都忙碌得不可思議,台北-烏來來回跑、安坑-政大、台北-宜蘭、台北-新竹折返,交通上花的時間真的是不得了,但也吸收很多新知(尤其是透過政大)、更看懂自己土生土長的小島大小事、更認識自己的文化、更能玩味與不同的人相處的味道、更享受在台灣盡量慢慢快活,卻也是一種很後現代的必要充電。

這種充電很必要,畢竟winter is coming。

說真的有點害怕到了芬蘭又回到當初那種有點恐懼、封閉、畏縮以致於有點麻木不仁、喪失好奇心與笑容的狀態。不只是因為天氣又冷又黑,而是我自己不熟悉如何去表達自己在芬蘭自由放任的學術研究中的焦慮與挫折,我也沒有足夠的經驗與能量去讀懂其他人的理論跟研究,以致於一天到晚焦慮是自己很笨,才會「跟不上」其他所有的人。

念碩士以來,鋪天蓋地的新資訊排山倒海地向我撲來,來得好快,我卻也沒有能力讓它停下來。

雖然是半開玩笑,但是這也是為什麼我才會在籌劃以後如果要出什麼講自己芬蘭經驗的書,那書名一定會叫做:「如何在芬蘭念書而不失去笑容」。就是因為聽東西、與人互動對話都充斥了距離跟不熟悉,導致笑容與好奇心與靈魂都失去了。

我發現,有能力講清楚自己的情緒與焦慮,是跟自己和解的第一步。我這次回到政治大學去上後現代的課,就是體悟到這個重要的道理。雖然我不了解社工專業、也不熟悉實務,但是我學到最珍貴的重點在於正視到:把自己的狀況,用自己的聲音,一字一句的講清楚這件事情是這重要的、也是成長的必須。在上課的同時,我從老師與同學的無私坦蕩蕩的貼近自己經驗的分享中,讓我有好多層次的感動與觸發。

我要努力讓自己能夠長出來這樣的能力。

這是從飛機上面照蘇黎世的景色

這是從飛機上面照蘇黎世的景色

彷彿聽到的悲歌

原住民與原住民結婚所生子女,取得原住民身分。
原住民與非原住民結婚所生子女,從具原住民身分之父或母之姓或原住民傳統名字者,
取得原住民身分。
前項父母離婚,或有一方死亡者,對於未成年子女之權利義務,由具有原住民身分之父
或母行使或負擔者,其無原住民身分之子女取得原住民身分。(原住民身份法第四條)

意思就是,如果我今天是原住民(比如說泰雅族),不小心認識了而且嫁了非原住民(比如說他叫小李),我們的孩子(假設是個兒子)得要是從我的姓–或是恢復傳統名字–才會有原住民身份。如果今天我跟小李生的這孩子不巧剛好是李家長孫,那對不起,小李的媽媽把我這兒子當金孫天天帶身邊、帶他去廟裡給阿公阿嬤看、帶他去市場逛、在家裡顧他等等,簡直是無微不至的照顧。小李的媽媽好疼這個金孫,總是喃喃說李家有後。

這情況下,我兒子會從我姓嗎?是難之又難。

那帶兒子回到我的部落(比如說寒溪)學習講族語,有多大可能?小李的媽媽說:「這是我們李家的孩子,妳回娘家自己回去就好了。」這樣一來,又不免是一場硬仗要打。我就算一心希望孩子可以學族語、去認識他的根,但他儼然已經成了「李家」的人了。

那兒子在這樣狀況下長大,原住民的認同存在的機率有多大可能?試想,他會在都會區長大(比如說台中逢甲)、會在逢甲的小學國中高中上課、跟朋友講台語、幾乎不會認識原住民的孩子、不會接觸泰雅族語(除了一個月兩次回外婆家)。他愛他的外婆、總是帶台中太陽餅上去給寒溪的外婆吃,但是他不理解也不在乎到底那織布是什麼含義;他偶而看到表兄弟姐妹,雖然一點也不熟但是臉上總是帶著笑容,因為孩子知道這是基本的禮貌。但是他不在乎為什麼表兄弟姐妹當中總是常常聽說有人意外車禍死亡、總是有人得肝病、痛風、喝酒醉,他自忖:「他們原住民嘛,總是愛喝酒是免不了。」他不覺得自己跟泰雅有任何關係。

我就這樣看著兒子慢慢的變成一個我都不認識的陌生人了。

會試想上面的情境是因為我仔細想了一下周遭的泰雅族姐妹親戚的狀況,嫁給非原住民而孩子又不從父姓的是很少很少幾乎沒有的。這些姊妹們多半是游離在烏來與都會之間,也多半是在烏來長大、但是讀書是到台北去讀書。

烏來國中小文旗校長在政大演講的時候,分享他看到烏來雖然原住民漢人一半一半,但是烏來國中小的孩子幾乎都是原住民是為什麼— 他釐清了兩個他在烏來觀察到的兩種人:(1)比較有錢的平地人與(2)沒有錢家庭狀況多半出問題的原住民。根據校長的觀察,第一類平地人因為可以負擔學費,會送孩子出烏來唸書;第二類烏來的原住民則是不太行,才造成他在學校看到的學生大多是原住民。

以我來看,校長的觀察漏掉了很關鍵的中間人,也就是點教育概念、會送孩子出烏來唸書的原住民。而我就是從小被送出去的那些人之一,因為我從來沒有在烏來國中小念過書,家裡也相信讀書讀好能有更好人生。在我求學那時候,我跟我朋友是這樣,我也注意到我之前有很多人也是這樣,在我之後更是有更多人前仆後繼是這樣。我驀然驚覺,今天因為身份法影響下、因為沒有權力去爭奪孩子去從母姓,導致孩子「自然而然」失去原住民身份的這群女人,就是像我這種人跟部落有一點點類似熟悉的陌生人的一代。

我們的爸媽那一代可能因為偉大成功的國語政策而沒有說族語說得流利、傳統技藝(像是織布)也慢慢流失,到我們這代泰雅的認同就已經淡化變成斑駁模糊的隱約存在。這樣的情況下,雖然我再怎麼希望孩子可以回到泰雅與祖靈的懷抱,卻因為孩子因為社會的壓力與落後的法令卻沒能從母姓,以至於泰雅認同或許繼續淡化下去。

當然妳身分證上面寫泰雅族,不一定表示你自動有泰雅族的意識與認同,有泰雅族的意識與認同的也不一定是身分證上面寫泰雅族的人。但是,沒有這個身分證上的認同,卻不可否認會讓你與族群的認同多一點的距離。只是在想,到底一個看起來很無辜的身份法,會怎麼樣方方面面影響到原住民的現在與未來。