芬蘭是單一制政府嗎?

芬蘭的政體屬於單一制,跟台灣一樣。政治學的文獻裡面常常講得很模糊,因為地方政府有一定的自治權力,所以有點像聯邦國。不過總而言之,現在至少多數都同意台灣是『均權制的單一國』。

到底什麼叫做單一制呢?

「單一制」:In a unitary state, the central or national government has complete authority over all other political divisions or administrative units. For example, the Republic of France is a unitary state in which the French national government in Paris has total authority over several provinces, known as departments, which are the subordinate administrative components of the nation-state. The local governments of a unitary state carry out the directives of the central government, but they do not act independently. (source: Annenberg Classroom)

單一制的相反是「複合制」(或是「邦聯/聯邦制」,當然邦聯跟聯邦不一樣,但是今天主要講單一所以這個細節下次再說),For example, in contrast to the unitary state of France, Germany is a federal republic, which means that the national or federal government in Berlin shares political authority with the governments of several Lander, or political units within the nation-state. However,as in all federal states, including Australia, India, and the United States of America, the central or national government of Germany is supreme within the sphere of authority granted to it through the constitution. (source: Annenberg Classroom)

800px-Map_of_unitary_and_federal_states.svg

藍色為單一制(unitary)國家,綠色為複合制–聯邦或邦聯 (federations) 來源 By Lokal_Profil, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2744912

單一制或是聯邦制也好,跟民主不民主是兩回事。像是採取單一制的法國跟採取聯邦制的德國,兩個都是憲政民主國家;反觀採取單一制的阿爾及利亞、史瓦濟蘭、利比亞等,都是非民主國家,而蘇丹就是不民主的聯邦制代表 (source: Annenberg Classroom)。

Finland EN web

芬蘭是單一制國家,由市(municipality, Kunta in Finnish) 以及區 (region, maakunta in Finnish)所組成 (source: Council of European Municipalities and Regions)

如果我今天住在赫爾辛基的Kamppi百貨公司附近為例,我住的區(maakunta)會叫做Uusimaa,而市(Kunta)就會叫做Helsinki;如果我今天住在聖誕老人村,那我住的區就會是Lappi,我的市則是Rovaniemi。

芬蘭的Maakunta分區就是實線,kunta就是裡面的虛線。比如說一整個北部Lappi區下面有很多個市。台灣的話比較繁複(到底為什麼那麼小的國家還在堅持複雜到不行的制度是要折磨誰?),複雜到你就算讀政治系大概也不一定會對這種東西倒背如流

全國目前有6直轄市、13縣、3市;下轄170區(含6個直轄市山地原住民區及3市的12區)、鄉(鎮、市)共198個(146鄉、38鎮及14縣轄市)。(source: 內政部民政司

所以在上圖而言,台灣地圖分區上的實線就是那個「6直轄市、13縣、3市」,而虛線就是170區跟198鄉鎮市。(說實在為什麼還會有這種台東縣裡面有台東市、花蓮縣裡面有花蓮市這種設計?除了在國家考試當陷阱以外,也沒有什麼其他的功能吧…?)

總而言之,芬蘭屬於單一制政府,意思就是中央政府擁有最高統治權,地方政府必須配合中央政府行事,要做什麼也要得到中央政府的授權與許可

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