Julie Chen’s inaugural speech at Uni. Helsinki

I participated in Julie Yu-Wen Chen’s inaugural speech on 25th May. It was truly insightful and I am glad that I was there. Before going to the lecture hall, I have no idea what does Chinese studies mean, and I have no idea if there’s a difference between Chinese studies and China studies and Sinology.

Julie’s discipline is political science.  Therefore when she conduct Chinese research, she does not only look at China. Rather, she always look for scientific theories that can explain the Chinese societal phenomenon and to put it into the international comparison context. Her most famous research is about minorities in China. I find it really great because I can see how my research talk with her research.

Julie commenced her presentation by making a distinction between ‘Chinese studies decades ago’ and ‘contemporary Chinese studies’. She justified this distinction by making the argument that there’s no undisputed one and neutral Chinese research. She argues that having different discipline, cultural background and being educated from different time period and location will determine where you see what counts as central component of Chinese studies. Basically she wants to introduce the concept that the Chinese studies you know might not be the one and only way of doing Chinese research. She did it in two ways. First, she contrasted the differences of central components between ‘Chinese studies decades ago’ and ‘contemporary Chinese studies’. The former includes classical literature, linguistics and phonology; where the latter includes sociology, political science and economics. In the eyes of the older generation of Sinologists, commenting on the political issues of China can be superficial because that’s what politicians and journalists do, not scientists. Of course nowadays the situation has changed and social science as a whole become more relevant in Chinese studies. The second way she made the point of versatile Chinese research is provoke you by asking whether we are treating Chinese studies as

  1. with rich cultural heritage
  2. socialist country
  3. authoritarian and backwards

With different choices mean that you take different orientations in dealing with Chinese studies. This choice also influence your field research location between mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong/Macau or Singapore. In short, she wishes to stress that we need to be mindful about the perspectives of generational divide and disciplinary divide. With important agents such as Asian studies, Confucious institute, she hopes to create and construct a unique Finland’s Chinese studies with distinctive characteristics.

Julie_Chen_陳玉文

Julie Yu-Wen Chen, professor of Chinese Studies at the Department of World Cultures at the University of Helsinki. Source: her tuhat database profile

Her presentation made me reflect on my encounter with Chinese Studies at the University of Helsinki. Three years ago when I just started my studies in Helsinki, I was very interested in whether I can find a TA or RA or engage in any way with the Chinese studies (and/or Confucius institute). The plan did not go well because Confucius Institute told me they were only in charge of Chinese studies at the moment and they have enough people to teach. My personal experience showed me that the University of Helsinki was not ready to utilize the human resources of native Chinese speaker. I tried to participate in the ALICE (Academic Language and Intellectual Exchange) program and University of Helsinki’s Course Assistant Program as a native Chinese speaker. However neither of the plan worked out. I asked the coordinator why Mandarin Chinese is not included in the Course Assistant Program:

As a Mandarin Chinese speaker, I find myself a strong candidate to share my culture and assisting the class for Chinese language courses. I love to help people with their language learning and I am passionate towards language learning. If it’s not terribly inconvenient, would you recommend what needed to be done so the university would include Mandarin Chinese as one of the targeted language enlisted in the programme? 

The answer from the coordinator was that there were only two courses per academic year so the need was low. Therefore the need for assistant is low, too. Here is her answer:

We have indeed Chinese courses in our language offerings, but only two courses per academic year. The first, beginner’s level course is in the autumn semester and the second one continues from that in the spring semester. Since there are only these two courses there hasn’t been a huge need for assistants so far, but now we are piloting this in our Chinese teaching as well.

I hope this will change in the future with Julie’s inauguration! For more information, see the blog of Chinese Studies at the University of Helsinki and Julie Yu-Wen’s website.

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加拿大政府理解的共管

希望以這篇文章可以增加我們對「共管」思考的可能性。也希望今天 520台灣新總統上任,用加拿大新政府的格局與高度,來期許蔡英文以及新政府能夠與時俱進。

「共管」,其實在這個脈絡底下比較類似是一種「國家與原住民族建立的關係與這樣價值下所產生的格局」,最重要的,共管是對殖民歷史的肯認與和解。所以這邊沒有處理到誰與誰管、怎麼管、是共同管理還是公私協力云云。當然「共管」這個概念在與公部門溝通的當中是需要去思考,誠如惠東老師所言,可能在目前長期照顧的討論下,「共管」如果read between the lines 或許是國內法下的公私協力:

「公私協力即公部門和私部門可以形成一種特殊的互動關係, 在共同合作與分享資源的信任基礎下結合, 以提供政府部門的服務」

「所謂「公」也就是「公部門」,即指政府或公務員; 「私」就是「私部門」,即指公民或「第三部門」,如人民、服務對象、社區組織、法人團體、非營利團體等。」

「二十一世紀的公共行政研究 已從政府的統治進入「治理典範」(governance paradigm) ,強調政府的統治不再是單獨行動, 而是跨越政府和社會之間、公部門和私部門之間的界限, 所形成的 「共管」(co-management)、 「合產」(coproduction)、 「競合」(competitive cooperation)等關係的管理模式。」(張惠東老師@原照盟)

不過如果我們看下面加拿大的經驗,就會發現,重點其實不在公私協力,而是在權力移轉以及用自治政府為目標作為終極的和解方式。公共行政的框架其實都是屬於強加在原住民族身上的imposed governance system,都需要在概念以及實務上去逐步跳脫。以下共管的概念是從加拿大法務部長 Jody Wilson-Raybould 致詞稿中節錄(致詞全文按此下載,致詞影片按收看)。

Jody_Wilson-Raybould-1080x1060

Jody Wilson-Raybould 加拿大法務部部長

她演講重點如下:

  1. 與原住民族建立國與國關係 (Nation-to-Nation relationship):
    1. 法務部長提醒,唯有建立國與國關係,才會真正達到「重建國家與原住民族關係」的目標。就如同加拿大內閣總理 Justin Trudeau 在跟各個部會首長在就任業務指導的時候所言:

      “No relationship is more important to me and to Canada than the one with Indigenous peoples. It is time for a renewed, nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous peoples based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership.”

    2. 這樣國與國關係的建立,是早該做,但是沒有完成的任務;這樣國與國關係的建立,也是唯一可以促成國家與原住民族和解的方式。
      那該怎麼做?她強調必須從解構殖民遺緒(colonial legacy)開始,比如說全面地去面對加拿大對原住民族進行文化大屠殺的黑暗歷史(ex. Indian residential schools)

  2. 加拿大目前的體制是硬套在原住民族身上的治理體制
    1. 她反省到,雖然講「國與國關係」是目標,但是加拿大政府裡面有關於原住民族事務的機關跟部落與族脫節。
    2. 她承認這些機關都是an imposed system of governance (強加在原住民頭上的條條框框) ,這些將會是個大挑戰。
    3. 比如說加拿大政府到目前還是透過’bands’來講第一民族但是bands之所以出現是透過indian act, 而諷刺的是,indian act本身就是自治政府與自決的相反。所以她說目前要從強加體制中脫離(move beyond the system of imposed governance).

  3. 加拿大政府的角色在: 從旁協助原住民族轉型為自治政府
    1. 她強調原住民族自治權是於法有據:加拿大憲法(S.35)保障肯認原住民族跟條約權。她也承認在加拿大部落裡談解殖民不易。
    2. 她問:「140年來已經深入骨髓的Indian Act你要怎麼擺脫?」部落現在正在轉型—nation-building and rebuilding. 加拿大政府的責任在從旁協助這個轉型。
    3. 加拿大目前在做的,最務實的層面,就是用和解計畫(reconciliation framework)。法務部長表示:我們要更有效、而且更清楚的方式來承認原住民族;而且對這些已經準備好的並且願意的原住民族轉型成自治政府 (英文她使用 Nation) 提供支持。在轉型的同時,政府會保障部落持續有相關的計畫跟服務(也就是來自中央政府服務不中斷)。
    4. 她也提到轉型過程的協助,中央政府要與原住民族自治政府發展新的預算關係。
    5. 她提醒這樣重建自治政府不是空中樓閣,很多的國家級或是區域級原住民族組織已經準備好來support Nation rebuilding. 比如說在土地管理、或是財務行政方面。

  4. 加拿大政府對原住民族成立自治政府的定位
        • 這有合法性(歷史正義)、
        • 這樣會正面地改變加拿大(p.5; change the way Canada is governed and for the better),
        • 這彰顯了加拿大有能力包容不一樣的法學傳統以及治理方式
        • 這是加拿大與時俱進的cooperative federalism & multi-level governance: 尊重多元(diversity)、支持原住民族社會經濟進展的最佳證明
  5. 結論
      • 這樣的自治政府不只存在於加拿大原住民族,而是所有原住民族共同面臨的挑戰與機會。
      • 過去已經兩個原住民十年,她呼籲讓我們這個世紀成為one where IPs, no matter where they live, deconstruct their colonial legacy and rebuild their communities 不管原住民族居住在哪裡,解構殖民遺緒、並且重建部落。讓這個世紀成為國家與原住民族以夥伴關係共同邁向一個「支持原住民族強大並健康起來、能夠掌控自己命運」的和解

後記:

Jody Wilson-Raybould ,加拿大的法務部長在聯合國原住民族議題常設論壇(下面簡稱論壇)來致詞。看到部長來國際性活動致詞不稀奇,一聽之下發現怎麼加拿大找得到那麼有sense的法務部長?!原來是她的政府的格局、他自己的身份跟經歷讓這份致詞意義如此深遠。

44歲的 Jody Wilson-Raybould 的族名是Puglaas,是她祖母給她取的名字,在Kwak’wala族語中,意思是 ‘a woman born to noble people’. 她是破天荒第一個原住民族女性擔任法務部長的職位。有關於她的背景,詳看 National Post 對她的專題報導 “A distinguished prosecutor and First Nations leader, Canada’s Justice Minister is something new”

民主理論與性別化的實踐

「民主理論與性別化的實踐」是一門今年(2016)我的指導教授在五月底預計開設的兩日密集課程,修完之後,我離畢業又更進一步!所以我已經報名參加,而且會在裡面把論文的一部份與訪問學者討論。

修這種課程,對我而言,最花心思的就是要一直思考到底這樣的概念在台灣是如何實踐的。這樣的概念在多大的程度上可以穿越界線?它的解釋力是不是還在?

第一位訪問教授是Yvonne Galligan主要的研究聚焦在愛爾蘭、北愛爾蘭以及英國,議題是性別與民主之間的關係,主要是兩個方面的研究:第一、發展十五個政治決策場域內性別化的指標,目前最主要測試的地點是英國;第二、政治代表性,女性在政治場域中代表性偏低的原因與後果。第二位訪問教授是丹麥來的 Birte Siim,她在人權、照顧政治、民主與多元、公民權、性別與權力、多元文化主義與交織性(intersectionality)都有深厚的底蘊。第三位是芬蘭教授 Johanna Kantola,她主要研究的場域是性別、權力、政黨、交織性、性別平等政策、國家女性主義、女性主義理論與代表性。

指導教授說討論的形式是寫一篇25頁以內的小論文,在開始之前可以給大家看、討論。由於現在只剩下一週的時間,我打算就我之前ECPR(歐洲政治研究學會)的 joint session 討論的那篇做修改。其中,尤其以多元文化主義和原住民族探討為經,奠基在個人的社會權以及奠基在集體的文化權為緯,來做討論。

–以下是詳細課程資訊–

DEMOCRATIC THEORY AND GENDERED PRACTICES

Joint Doctoral Course of PRSC and SKY Doctoral Programmes

(Political, Societal and Regional Change PRSC; Gender, Culture and Society SKY)

University of Helsinki, 30-31st May, 2016

Keynote speakers:

Professor Yvonne Galligan (Queen’s University, Belfast): Interrogating the quality of democracy: Feminist insights

Professor Birte Siim (University of Aalborg): Reframing democracy ‒ intersectional and transnational challenges

Academy Researcher Johanna Kantola (University of Helsinki): Party politics – a challenge or a possibility to gender equality?

Professor Anne Maria Holli (University of Helsinki): Who represents women? Theoretical and empirical insights from a study on the corporatist structures in Finnish public policy-making

We invite doctoral students in the field of gender research and/or dealing with various theoretical and/or empirical aspects of democracy to propose abstracts for papers to be commented by our guest speakers and principal investigators within HU in the seminar sessions which will be arranged adjacent to the keynote speeches on Monday and Tuesday 30-31st May.

A detailed programme of the doctoral will be available soon, but at this stage we would like interested doctoral students to pre-register their intention to present a paper.as soon as possible to ensure that we will schedule enough time for the paper sessions.

Deadline for abstract proposals: 15.4.2016. Please submit your abstract in Weboodi: 79340 P630. Politiikan tutkimuksen muut jatko-opinnot (112947121)/P630 Other Postgraduate Studies in Politics: Democratic Theory and Gendered Practices.

General participant pre-registration: preferred deadline is also 15.4.2016 but registration will continue till 30.5:  Please, those doctoral students who wish to participate in this course and acquire credits from it  but are not giving a paper of their own,  kindly also pre-register for the course  in advance  in Weboodi (for organizational purposes):  79340 P630. Politiikan tutkimuksen muut jatko-opinnot (112947121)/P630 Other Postgraduate Studies in Politics: Democratic Theory and Gendered Practices.

Credits:

1 ECTS: Active participation, including participation in the paper sessions

2 ECTS: Active participation (see above) and presentation of own paper

4-6 ECTS: See above plus essay and/or literature examination (in aquarium) – more detailed information available later on/on request (target: in particular political science doctoral students, for whom this doctoral course compensates for credits in P615 Political theory)