箕面市的長照機構

今天在日本的長照學習是透過兩家長照機構:「ラ・ソーラ みのお駅前」以及「あすなる 牧落」。兩間都是在大阪府箕面市的長照機構。

箕面市是大阪府北部的重要住宅城市,位於大阪市中心北部15公里處,從梅田火車站坐阪急火車可以在30分鐘左右抵達。本來箕面市的羅馬拼音是Minō或是Minoo,不過當地政府把拼音改成是Minoh,恐怕是因為以英語為母語的外國客人常常把人家好好的「咪ㄋㄡ 」唸成是「咪ㄋㄨ 」的關係。

大阪府地圖

大阪府是日本的第一級行政區,包含大阪市(24區)、堺市(7區)、中核市、特例市以及其他市町村。

ラ・ソーラ みのお駅前 

ラ・ソーラ(La Sola) 是醫療法人神明會成立的長照機構,在日本已經前前後後成立了9家,第十家即將要在高槻市(たかつきし)設立。這家La Sola是於2013年的11月成立的,共有67間房間。

 

招牌

  

夜晚的la Sola仍然明亮

  

還在找入住者

  

找照護人員,有執照很好、沒有也可以

 這家La Sola是全天候型的長照設施,提供住宿以及日間照顧服務。它會先收五個月份的租金當作押金(360,000~400,000日元,約台幣11萬到12萬),然後每個月固定收178,650日元(約台幣五萬三),其中包含租金、管理費、飲食費、生活諮詢費以及健康管理費。詳情的收費參見這邊

 

牧落機構的外觀

 
あすなる 牧落

這間是箕面市指定的老人支援設施,主要目的應該是要全面壓縮失能的時間而成立的地方。他大致分三種服務:日間照顧、以自立取向的住宿服務以及團體家屋。

日間照顧中,他們提供肌力肌耐力功能訓練服務,目的是可以維持穩定的日常行動,如果希望洗澡也是可以安排。只要是想要防止雙腿肌肉無力疼痛、改善關節痛等、或是希望要交朋友、或是在家洗澡有困難的,都可以來。

住宿服務則是希望紓緩老人家自己孤獨生活可能有的焦慮,以及他長期護理服務的需求。房間裡面包含寢室、廚房、浴室以及廁所,主打「自立」的精神,就是老人家可以用自己習慣的步調、依照自己的節奏在這邊生活。

團體家屋則是紓解老人家被日漸嚴重的失智干擾的痛苦。一層樓60平方米,提供9間客房,家屋總共是兩層樓。這個所謂的團體家屋跟我在芬蘭Sodankylä市的健康福利局看到的其實很像,就是寬敞的客廳中間擺兩到三個桌子椅子、開放式的廚房以及老人家各自有自己的房間。

牧落-老人長照機構-房間平面圖

住宿服務的房間平面圖。source: あすなる牧落 


牧落-團體家屋

團體家屋平面圖。source:あすなる牧落

 

收費方式方面,可以參見牧落使用料金說明。簡單的說,日間照顧依照失能的程度,它會分別計次收費,日間護理也會依照失能程度來按月收費。而住宿服務是一個月收取71200日元(押金:135,000日元)。最後,團體家屋一律是收取500,000日元的入居金,另外月費154,500日元、每月護理費用27,902日元以及各種其他費用。

也是在歡迎老人家來

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Sake tasting 

I had my first time Japanese sake tasting at the guesthouse CaminoRo. Sake master Koji shared three types of sake with us. The breweries of these sake are much smaller than the big brands (eg. Hakutsuru 白鶴). I felt that I become more advanced in sake knowledge after the sake tasting!

The tasting lasts around 30 minutes. Guesthouse host Koji has a sake master certificate, so he offers sake tasting for ¥500. We made it our first evening event.

 

Koji gave us a piece of sake description and three glasses


The first one was made by Emishiki (笑四季酒造). The rice was famous Yamadanishiki (山田錦). This sake tasted playful, fruity and smooth, I liked it a lot. 
 

intense yamadanishiki sake

  

純米大吟釀means rice polish: 50% or less


The second one is made by Nate Shuzo (名手酒造). The alcohol percentage is slightly higher than the first one. This tasted light and summery, almost feel like a sparkling wine.

 

“Kuroushi” from Wakayama

 
 The third glass has the highest alcohol percentage. It sounds weird but it tasted really good. I liked the dense taste of the third sake. Koji told us that one of the tasting master of Konoshita Shuzo (木下酒造) is from Britain. Maybe that’s why it has such strong, dense and good aftertaste.

 

alcohol: 20-21%. rice polishing of 66%


Last but not least, Koji gave us a piece of paper to explain the specific classifications.

   

The Inupiaq Language 伊努皮亞克語

The Inupiaq language is spoken across Alaska’s Arctic costal area (see the language map below).

source of the language map: Alaska Native Language Center

Language map of Alaska 阿拉斯加的原住民語言分佈

It is closely related to the Canadian Inuit dialects and the Greenlandic dialects. The population of Inupiaq people in Alaska is 15,700 persons, whereas the population in Canada and Greenland is approximately 30,500 and 47,000 persons (Alaska Native Language Center). Inupiaq language is more than 8,000 years old (Browers, 2010: 5). 

The contemporary written Inupiaq uses the Latin alphabet. However, if we trace back to the beginning of 20th century, Inupiaq writing started with a pictographic system adapted from the Yupik system of Helper Neck (Kaplan 2005: 235). It was not until the late 1940s that the Inupiaq language was developed for religious purposes. “Hymnals and later the Inupiat New Testament (in 1966) were published, followed by the Inupiat Eskimo Dictionary in 1970.” (ibid). 

The Inupiaq people in Alaska are mostly from the Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Strais region (IC Magazine). On the one hand, North Slope Borough in Alaska is home to many Inupiaq people. Most of the Borough’s 9000 permanent residents live in eight communities and the Inupiaq people are the majority of every community. The Inupiaq people made up 61 percent in Barrow, 83.3 percent in Anaktuvuk Pass, 88 percent in Kaktovik, 88 percent in Point Lay, 89 percent in Point Hope, 90 percent in Wainwright, 92 percent in Nuiqsut and 92.3 percent in Atqasuk (North Slope Borough). On the other hand, the population of the Northwest Arctic Borough is about 7300, of which approximately 83 percent are Inupiaq people (Browers 2010:4). 

The singular noun Inupiaq refers to a person or the language, while the plural Inupiat is often refer to the group, although some prefer Inpiaqs, with the English plural (Kaplan 2001: 250). ’Inuk’ means ‘person’ and -piaq means ‘genuine’. Inupiaq is often spelled as Iñupiaq in northern dialects (Alaska Native Language Center).

In terms of official recognition, Inupiaq language, along with other Alaska’s Indigenous languages, became official language of the state in 2014 (Quinn 2014, Oct 23). It was a powerful move and sent a message that indigenous languages are important (ibid). However, it was also noted that this law “deliberately remains symbolic, featuring a provision that does not requires the state or a municipal government to conduct business or government activities in languages other than English”. Indigenous elders feared that the symbolic action may contribute to real consequences. Eyak, one of Alaska’s indigenous languages, became extinct with the death of its last fluent speaker, Marie Smith, in 2008 (ibid). Ronald Browers, an Inupiaq elder, activist and language teacher, reflected warily on the extinct of Eyak “While it is preserved in books and dictionaries the spoken Eyak language died in January of 2008. No more….gone forever.  Perhaps we need to use words like revitalize and grow, and take control of the destiny of our Iñupiaq language so we and it does not face the same destiny of the Eyak language and we fade into oblivion only to be remembered in books and dictionaries. ” (Brower 2010: 4-5). 

The Inupiaq language is in danger. According to the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS), Inupiaq language in Alaska is categorized as ‘6b threatened’ (Alaska Native Language Center). Accroding to Joshua Fishman’s threatened language assessment grid, Inupiaq is threatened by the dominant English language. There is no media nor services offered in Inupiaq language. The language proficiency is not a requirement in making the educational curriculum. Even in the families Inupiaq is not spoken necessarily (Brower 2010). Despite of the official status of Inupiaq language, the government approach showed that “Inupiaq language is in some way not as legitimate as the dominating English language” (ibid: 9). Of the 13,500 Inupiat in Alaska, about 3000 persons speak the language. This number is alarmingly lower compared to its Canadian and Greenlandic counterparts. The Canadian Inuit population has 24,000 speakers in the population of 31,000 and there are 46,000 speakers in the population of 46,400 in Greenland (Alaska Native Language Center). In the Northwest Arctic Borough, it is pointed out that of the 83 percent, 6060 Inupiaq people in the Northwest Arctic Borough, “there are now about 1090 fluent Inupiaq first language speakers, making language speakers at 11 percent of the population” (Browers 2010).

Knowing the Inupiaq language is seen as essential for Inupiaq identity (Kaplan 2005). The North Slope Elders has compiled the Northwest Arctic list of values, where language has its first place on the list. This echoes with the three-level theory of culture, where “language is inextricably tired to the first level of culture—how people knows, believes, thinks, and feels. It is a key part of what gies a people their identity.” (Fagan n.d.:10) The revitalization of the Inupiaq language is urgent, but the progress is impeded because Inupiaq people do not seem to have control over the social systems (Ronald Brower, personal communication, February 19, 2016). 

“Kisima Inŋitchuŋa” (“Never Alone”) is a video game based on an Inupiaq legend. It is made with the determination to revitalize the Inupiaq language. The game’s trailer is narrated by Ronald Brower, an Inupiaq language teacher at the Alaska Native Language Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Here is the trailer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbRqqPRgBRA

Reference

Alaska Native Language Center http://www.uaf.edu/anlc/languages/i/ 

Brower Ronald H. (2010). From a Heritage Language to a First Language: Revitalizing the Inupiat Language. In North Slope Inupiat Youth and Elders Conference. Barrow, Alaska November 17-19, 2010.

Fagan K. (n.d.) Identity and Language. Module 2 of Circumpolar Studies 322. 

Kaplan L (2005). Inupiq writing and International Inuit Relations. Études/Inuit/Studies, vol. 29, no.1-2. Retrieved from https://www.erudit.org/revue/etudinuit/2005/v29/n1-2/013942ar.pdf 

Quinn S (2014, Oct. 23). Alaska’s indigenous languages now official along with English. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-alaska-languages-idUSKCN0ID00E20141024